Реферат — «Life Stress Models»

Вид работы: реферат

Дисциплина: коррекційна освіта

Тема: Life Stress Models

Объем: 11 стр

Год сдачи работы: 2011

Язык выполнения: английский

 

Содержание

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1. THE HISTORY OF STRESS THEORY

CHAPTER 2. MODELS OF LIFE STRESS

2.1 Physiological model

2.2 Arousal model

2.3 Psychosocial stimuli model

2.4 Transactional model

2.5 Interactional model

2.6 General facet model

CHAPTER 3. COPING WITH STRESS

CONCLUSIONS

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

INTRODUCTION 

This research questions traditional conceptions of stress and coping and presents a more comprehensive analysis of stress management. Sources of stress are expanded to include various intrapsychic and interpersonal stressors. The evolution of coping strategies is described, culminating in proactive, collective, creative, existential and spiritual coping.

No one can claim immunity from life’s problems, but everyone can learn how to be more effective in coping. There are vast individual differences in how we react to life stress. While some are vulnerable, and become easily overwhelmed by stress, others are very resilient. Why do similar misfortunes lead one person to distress and another person to success? What accounts for these differential effects of stress? What are the mediating variables? What are the mechanisms for effective coping?

Several excellent and widely cited reviews have been written on the topic of stress and depression in the past 15 years [11; 12; 15; 16; 17; 18]. Therefore, one challenge of the current work is to provide a useful brief summary of the state of the field, yet include coverage that is forward-looking enough to avoid duplication of prior reviews. Accordingly, particular attention is devoted to emerging topics in this field, or to highlighting interesting topics with significant conceptual or empirical gaps — admittedly subjective decisions. A second challenge is that this is a huge field, with major works emerging not only in clinical psychology, but also in sociology, psychiatry, and public health/epidemiology. Hundreds of articles have been published in just the past few years. Thus, it is necessary to be selective, with no pretense of comprehensive and exhaustive reporting.

Thus, our paper is devoted to a very current theme about life stress models.

The object of the research is the analysis of dimensions of life stress models.

Its subject comprises the practical use of different mechanisms of life stress coping.

The aim of work is to describe, analyze and compare life stress models.

The aim of work envisages the fulfillment of the following tasks:

  1. To analyze and to learn the theoretical material on the topic.
  2. To outline a number of models of stress.
  3. To determine the sources of life stress, to examine the stress process and the mechanisms of coping.

The practical significance of the research is to provide a more helpful tool for instruction — one that provides a scientific context within which to understand life stress models and that translates this scientific context into practical guidelines for using individual tests in psychological, sociological and psychiatric practice.

 

СПИСОК ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ

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10. Ingoldsby, B. B., Smith, S. R., & Miller, J. E. (2004). Exploring family theories. Los Angeles: Roxbury.

11. Kessler, R. C. (1997). The effects of stressful life events on depression. Annu. Rev. Psychol. Vol. 48: 191–214.

12. Kessler, R. C, Davis, C. G, Kendler, K. S. (1997). Childhood adversity and adult psychiatric disorder in the US National Comorbidity Survey. Psychol. Med. Vol. 27: 110–119.

13. Lazarus, R. S. and Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, Appraisal and Coping. Springer, New York.

14. Malim T., Birch, A. (1998). Introductory Psychology. Chapter 11: Stress and anxiety (pp. 219-234). MACMILLAN PRESS LTD. Retrieved on July from http://www.palgrave.com/psychology/malim/

15. Mazure, C. M. (1998). Life stressors as risk factors in depression. Clin. Psychol. Sci. Pract. 5: 291–313.

16. Monroe, S. M., Hadjiyannakis, K. (2002). The social environment and depression: focusing on severe life stress.

17. Paykel, E. S. (2003). Life events and affective disorders. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. Vol. 108: 61–66.

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19. Wong, P. T. P. (1993). Effective management of life stress: the resource-congruence model. Stress Med. Vol. 9: 51-60

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